Afghanistan profile
Afghanistan is a landlocked country and hence does not have any sea-shore or sea-ports. The Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)
Afghanistan history
Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 Communist counter-coup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan Communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-Communist mujahedin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama BIN LADIN. The UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. KARZAI was re-elected in August 2009 for a second term. Despite gains toward building a stable central government, a resurgent Taliban and continuing provincial instability - particularly in the south and the east - remain serious challenges for the Afghan Government.
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Conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Conventional short form: Afghanistan
Local long form: Jamhuri-ye Islami-ye Afghanistan
Local short form: Afghanistan
Formerly known as: Republic of Afghanistan
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Afghanistan's capital city is Kabul
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Afghanistan Constitution:

sixth constitution drafted 14 December 2003 - 4 January 2004;
signed 16 January 2004;
ratified 26 January 2004
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Afghanistan population growth rate: 2.22%
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Afghanistan highest point: Noshak 7,485 m
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Afghanistan lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
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About 12% of Afghanistan's land is arable.
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Helmand River is the Longest River in Afghanistan
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Afghanistan birth rate is 39 births/1,000 population
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Afghanistan infant mortality rate is 122 deaths/1,000 live births
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Afghanistan fertility rate is 5.54 children born/woman
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Afghanistan climate:

arid to semiarid;
cold winters and hot summers
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Top 10 cities of Afghanistan with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Kabul: 3,071,400
2. Kandahar: 512,000
3. Herat: 397,456
4. Mazar-i-Sharif: 375,000
5. Jalalabad: 205,423
6. Lashkar Gar: 201,546
7. Taloqan: 196,400
8. Khost: 160,214
9. Sheberghan: 148,329
10. Ghazni: 141,000
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Afghanistan ethnic groups:

Pashtun - 42%
Tajik - 27%
Hazara - 9%
Uzbek - 9%
Aimak - 4%
Turkmen - 3%
Baloch - 2%
other - 4%
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Afghanistan Exports:

opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
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Afghanistan Imports:

machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
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the bicameral National Assembly consists of the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats, two-thirds of members elected from provincial councils for 4-year terms, and one-third nominated by the president for 5-year terms) and the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (no more than 250 seats; members directly elected for five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
34 provinces (welayat, singular - welayat)

1. Badakhshan
2. Badghis
3. Baghlan
4. Balkh
5. Bamyan
6. Daykundi
7. Farah
8. Faryab
9. Ghazni
10. Ghor
11. Helmand
12. Herat
13. Jowzjan
14. Kabul
15. Kandahar
16. Kapisa
17. Khost
18. Kunar
19. Kunduz
20. Laghman
21. Logar
22. Nangarhar
23. Nimroz
24. Nuristan
25. Paktika
26. Paktiya
27. Panjshir
28. Parwan
29. Samangan
30. Sar-e Pul
31. Takhar
32. Uruzgan
33. Wardak
34. Zabul

Capital
current time and date
currency: Afghani (AFN)
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National anthem
GDP (PPP)
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Coat of arms